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Based in Paris

VIETNAM MARKET LENINISM

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    A man looks at an exhibit behind a red curtain inside the Ho Chi Minh Museum in Hanoi.
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    A Vietnamese soldier in uniform walks past a monument made from pieces of destroyed American aircrafts, which were shot down, and other war trophies from the Vietnam War at the Vietnamese People's Army Museum in Hanoi.
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    A family grieves at the tomb of a soldier killed during the Vietnam-American War at the Truong Son National Cemetery in the former Demilitarized Zone, DMZ.
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    Children in communist Pioneer uniforms adjust their scarves in front of the citadel in Hue.
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    Workers shovel gravel and stones off a barge in Dong Hoi.
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    A man stops in a doorway in a neighborhood built along railroad tracks in Hanoi.
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    A man smokes a cigarette under a bridge over the Perfume River in Hue.
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    A man lifts a bucket into a boat docked along the Perfume river in Hue.
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    A truck driver repairs a broken down Soviet truck along the Ho Chi Minh Highway inside the former Demilitarized Zone, DMZ.
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    A shopkeeper is surrounded by busts and images of Ho Chi Minh inside a store in Hue.
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    A woman speaks on her mobile phone at a night club in Dalat.
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    A man adjusts lanterns at a celebration marking the end of Tet, the lunar new year, in Hoi An.
Vietnam Market Leninism

Though millions fought and died under the communist flag in Vietnam during decades of warfare, it didn’t take long before the country abandoned Marxist economic principles and the centrally planned economy. In 1986, only 11 years after communist forces won the war, the “Doi Moi” reforms were enacted, ending the push for collectivization and adopting a market economy. Today, the results are evident. Much of the Ho Chi Minh Trail has been turned into a highway. Towns that were once heavily bombarded by the U.S. military have now sprung up malls and KFC restaurants. Even within the Communist Party’s youth wing, people join for business networking opportunities more often than they do for ideological reasons.

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