Ending River Blindness in Senegal
By Ed Kashi / VII
The END Fund is working to eliminate river blindness in Senegal. Scenes from Tambanoumouya, Senegal where 66% of the village suffered from the disease in 1986, but today this illness is nearly nonexistent.
River blindness (onchocerciasis) is an eye and skin infection caused by parasitic worms. Currently, over 198 million people in over 31 countries require treatment, the majority being in Africa. The disease is transmitted by the repeated bite of black flies on fast-flowing rivers and streams carrying the parasite.
The microfilariae (early stages of the parasitic worm) enters the human body upon the fly bite and can live up to 15 years within the body, potentially releasing 1,000 microfilariae a day. Consequently, people experience rashes, itchy skin, and impaired vision. When left untreated, itching can lead to bacterial infections and vision impairment occurs after many years of severe infection, so is only present in those over 30. When the microfilariae die in the eye, the inflammation leads to opaque spots in the cornea, and if left untreated, the cornea will become permanently cloudy. The optic nerve becomes damaged and the blindness is irreversible.
There is a safe, quick, successful treatment called ivermectin (Mectizan®). Community treatment is annual, continuing for 10-15 years until the adult worm life cycle ends. The END Fund has supported over 54 million river blindness treatments at a drug value of over $204 million. Pharmaceutical company Merck & Co. created the Mectizan Donation Program in 1987 to donate tablets for river blindness control to all who needed it in perpetuity.
Currently, the primary elimination strategy is sustainable, community-led mass drug administration of ivermectin. WHO aims to eliminate the disease by 2030.
This project was supported by The END Fund.
View more images from this project here
Ed Kashi is a photojournalist, filmmaker, speaker, and educator dedicated to documenting the social and political issues that define our times.
by Ed Kashi
In 2013, Ed Kashi visited several camps in Western Azerbaijan which housed some of the estimated one million Azerbaijani internally displaced persons (IDPs), who are the on-going victims of the unresolved Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh. By capturing vignettes of their lives and interviewing people in the community about their histories and aspirations, he demonstrated how IDP populations were surviving in the face of adversity. This work was later included in a book and exhibition that toured London, Berlin, Brussels, and Paris.
In October of 2017, Ed returned to Azerbaijan on a more upbeat mission – to capture the work undertaken to rebuild Jojug Marjanli, the first Azerbaijani territory to be liberated from Armenian control in over a quarter of a century. Azerbaijan armed forces were successful in seizing back this territory and withstood a determined counterattack by the Armenian armed forces. Azerbaijan is still trying to temporarily house nearly ten percent of their population, who remain as IDPs, in an orderly and decent manner. The government and local communities constructed a new town of at least 50 homes with another 100 on the way, proving the commitment of the inspiring people there.
One man that he had met, 50-year-old Ogtay Haziyev, had only left his village of 25 years for a total of approximately 5 days prior to the invasion. Two young teachers who recently moved to Jojug Marjanli to raise their young families and teach at the primary school are inspiring examples of next generation pioneers for a new future.
Nagorno-Karabakh is universally recognized as being part of Azerbaijan. Not a single country – including Armenia – recognizes it as either an independent state or a part of Armenia . Beginning in 1988, Armenia started a war, which resulted in the occupation of Nagorno Karabakh and seven adjacent regions. A ceasefire was signed in 1994. Since then, negotiations for a permanent peace agreement have become “frozen” and unresolved. Four UN Security Council Resolutions demanding the immediate withdrawal of the Armenian troops remain unimplemented.
Armenians and Azerbaijanis have made up the Karabakh region for centuries. They lived in relative peace until the early 20th century when tensions resulted in conflicts between the two communities. Following WWI and Russia’s Bolshevik revolution, the new Soviet rulers (as part of their divide-and-rule policy) established the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous region (including only the Armenian populated villages) within the Soviet Socialist Republic of Azerbaijan. Decades later, in the 1980s, intense Armenian-Azerbaijani friction turned violent after the region’s parliament voted to join Armenia. At this time, an estimated 20,000-30,000 people were killed as Armenian Armed Forces took over and occupied other Azerbaijani lands outside of Nagorno-Karabakh. After the 1991 fall of the Soviet Union, Nagorno-Karabakh illegally declared itself independent, which escalated the conflict into war.
Three years later, when a Russian-brokered ceasefire was signed in 1994, Nagorno-Karabakh and other Azerbaijani territories were left under Armenian control. While the war was taking place, over one million people fled. Before the war, about 25% of the total population was Azerbaijani. They fled from Nagorno-Karabakh and Armenia as ethnic Armenians fled the other way, and both sides have suffered severe casualties.
A stalemate has been in place since the truce due to Azerbaijani resentment over land loss and Armenian refusal to give back what Azerbaijanis believe is rightfully theirs. Russia, France, and the US have been working towards an end to the dispute.
Azerbaijan declared the new constitution approval from a 2006 referendum illegitimate. The peace process has slowly shown progress as Armenian and Azerbaijani presidents continue to meet. Over the last decade, the region has suffered a large degree of violence and ceasefire violations.
The Republic of Azerbaijan has a population of 9.6 million with Azerbaijani and Russian as its major languages and Islam as its major religion. Azerbaijan’s main exports are oil and oil products, and gas.
by Ed Kashi
Immigrant detention is prison by any other name. There are currently over 33,000 beds in private and public facilities – paid for with taxpayer dollars – that have to be filled daily to justify the expense. Since 1996, the U.S. has followed a policy of mandatory detention for all asylum seekers, meaning they are placed in handcuffs at the airport and expedited to a nearby facility so that they never technically touch U.S. soil. The 1996 law also mandates deportation for people convicted of certain criminal acts, many of them nonviolent offenses. Once people enter detention, they can be held indefinitely with limited access to communication and legal representation. Immigration courts are so backlogged that as of April 2017, there were 585,930 people waiting for a decision, with an average wait time of 670 days.
This project is currently on view at PROJECT FOR EMPTY SPACE in Newark, NJ
Listen to Juliet Horton’s story
Juliet Horton, originally from Uzbekistan, with her four-year-old son, Arthur, in Oxford, Maine on August 23, 2017. Juliet was in immigrant detention at the Hudson County Jail, Hartford Correctional Center for 2 years and 9 months.
Listen to Abu Bakar’s story
Abu Bakar, originally from Sierra Leone, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on August 12, 2017. Abu was a former detainee at Elizabeth Detention Center, Bucks County Prison, Allentown Prison for 3 years and was part of a lawsuit against the Esmor Corporation, a private company that ran the immigrant detention facility at the time he was detained.
These two portraits are part of a series that is currently on display at Gateway Project Spaces in Newark, NJ as part of the Newark iteration of Humanities Action Lab’s traveling exhibition, States of Incarceration (from October 18th to December 15th, 2017). Newest Americans–a collaborative storytelling project led by partners Talking Eyes Media, VII Photo and the Center for Migration and the Global City at Rutgers-Newark–produced eight photographic portraits by founding partner Ed Kashi of people who were detained between 1996 and the present, and conducted interviews with the subjects about their experience in detention and their lives since they were released. Kashi’s life-sized portraits feature former detainees who firmly stand their ground even while their physical settings seem to be receding from them, as though they are there and not there, at home and adrift, uncertain of their place in America. These portraits are accompanied by recorded accounts from the detainees, who phone visitors back when texted via cellphone. Visitors may text 973-707-3188 with the name of the subject to hear them tell their story.
Further support to create more portraits and interviews is currently being sought out to expand this project.
Tags: Ed Kashi, Immigration, incarceration, Stories, USA